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Sign Language 1317 - Cage & Kowalik: Deaf Culture & Issues: Home


He founded what University?

Thomas Hopkins  ___________?

What is the name of a Texas county named after a famous scout & spy, who happened to be deaf, during the Texas Revolution?

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You've already paid for it, so go get one! Plus, you can get handy discounts of 10- 20 percent around town. 

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Hola Professor Cage & Kowalik and eager SLNG 1317 students!

Our three goals today are to:



1.  Find at least five (5) excellent sources for your upcoming five (5) page paper.

2.  Stretch our knowledge of library research and reduce our "research anxiety".

3.  Learn about databases and search techniques that will help in other classes.

4.  Have fun along the way.


research model

What constitutes a quality program for children who are deaf?

Education for the child who is deaf has historically gone through many changes related to educational ideology and placement decisions. Presently, for good or bad, in the United States, approximately 75 percent of deaf/hard of hearing children are educated in an inclusion/mainstreamed setting housed in the public schools.

Source Citation   (MLA 7th Edition)

King, J. Freeman. "What constitutes a quality program for children who are deaf?" The Exceptional Parent Mar. 2015: 42+. General OneFile. Web. 25 Jan. 2016.

What part of .......

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One of 254 Texas counties

Deaf Smith County, Texas locator map

La bienvenida al nuevo año escolar

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Stephen Dingman
San Antonio College Library
1819 N. Main St.
San Antonio, TX 78212

Deaf & Discrimination

Deaf Discrimination: The Fight for Equality Continues

Posted: Updated:


Last thing you remember, you were walking down the street-- now you are lying in a hospital bed. The lights are so bright you can barely see, and your whole body is in pain. You try asking for assistance, but none of the medical staff can understand you because none of them communicate by using American Sign Language (ASL). They hand you some paperwork and ask you to write your questions on a note pad, but all you want is a conversation. What happened to you? How did you get here? What are you supposed to do now?

Frequently and all too easily, the rights of people who are deaf get stripped away. Every day, deaf individuals attempting to interact with hearing authorities, emergency responders, or organizations are denied basic access to communication and, in some instances, their lives are put into jeopardy.

There have been a number of cases where deaf Americans are wrongfully arrested after calling 911 for help. There are cases where deaf people die after the hospital withholds a critical medical diagnosis. Or perhaps ambitious students are denied access to medical school because the institution doesn’t feel like fulfilling their legal obligation to provide an interpreter. Although we live in the Land of the Free, the deaf citizens of this country continue to be oppressed by a disturbing lack of equal access.

2015-07-14-1436848607-9606660-ada.jpg As we approach the 25th anniversary of the Americans with Disabilities Act, it is alarming to see the level of audism that still exists in in this country. Audism is the belief that those with the ability to hear are superior or "normal." Because of audism, the rights of deaf individuals are regularly violated in places such as movie theaters, classrooms, and even online.

Simple considerations such as captioning, transcription, or sign language interpreting services can help break through the language barrier to protect the rights of deaf Americans. The ADA is a set of laws which guarantee equal access, yet deaf people are refused these accommodations due to the ignorance that still exists.

Deaf CEOs

Chief Scout Deaf Smith

Born: April 19, 1787 in New York, United States

  • Died: November 30, 1837 in Richmond, Texas, United States 

Erastus "Deaf" Smith did not see his hearing loss as an impediment, but as a way to allow him to avoid distractions while working as a spy and scout during the Texas Revolution. As the chief scout under General Sam Houston, Smith left an enduring legacy from his role in helping Texas achieve independence. The name of the modern-day Texas panhandle county Deaf Smith stands as one acknowledgement of Smith's contributions.

Born on April 19, 1787, in Dutchess County, New York, Smith was the son of Chilaib and Mary Smith. As a baby, Smith suffered from an illness that left him with severe, although not complete, hearing loss. In 1798 he moved with his family to Natchez, Mississippi, where he lived for the next several years. Smith made his first brief visit to Texas in 1817, settling in the San Antonio area about four years later. He married Mexican widow Guadalupe Ruiz Durán shortly after moving to Texas; the couple went on to have four children.

Smith settled in the new DeWitt's colony near what is now Gonzales, Texas, in 1825, while his family remained in San Antonio. Over the next several years, Smith made a living as a hunter, trader, and guide. Although he met several Texans who later spearheaded the Texas Revolution, Smith--who had become a Mexican citizen upon his marriage and even managed to learn Spanish--had little interest in Texan independence during this period. When tensions between Texans and their Mexican rulers rose during the 1830s, Smith strove to maintain neutrality due to his Mexican ties. However, after a Mexican sentry refused him entry to San Antonio and even threatened him with physical harm on a visit to his family in 1835, Smith decided to support the Texan cause.

Smith joined the Texan army, serving as a scout under General Stephen Austin, and participated in the battle of Concepción in October of 1835. While scouting around San Antonio, in November of that year he came upon the Mexican pack train that gave rise to the famed Grass Fight. After Smith reported his discovery of the supply train, Texan forces attacked, hoping to seize money or other valuables meant for the Mexican army--only to discover that the pack animals they had captured carried only grass to feed that army's animals. Smith led Texan troops into San Antonio during the following month's into San Antonio during the following month's siege of Bexar, suffering a battle injury that kept him off the front lines for some time.

Returning to service during the winter of 1836, Smith served as a messenger under William Travis, who sent Smith from the Alamo with a letter pleading for help for the beleaguered garrison. He soon encountered General Sam Houston and his army; Houston sent Smith and another messenger to discover the fate of the Alamo, and Smith returned with survivors Susanna and Angelina Dickinson. The following April, Smith participated in the strategy that led to a sweeping Texan victory at the Battle of San Jacinto. On orders from Houston, he and a few others destroyed the only ready exit from the battlefield, Vince's Bridge, helping the army capture Mexican General Santa Anna following a brief and decisive fight. Smith then carried Santa Anna's message to fellow Mexican General Filisola ordering him to cease his advance and return to Mexico.

After the revolution wound down, Smith became the leader of a company of Texas rangers, and in that capacity led them to victory over a larger Mexican force near Laredo in February of 1837. Shortly after this battle, Smith led the rangers and settled in Richmond, Texas. He died there on November 30, 1837, as the result of some form of lung disease. According to the Handbook of Texas Online, Houston eulogized Smith in a letter by writing, "My Friend Deaf Smith, and my stay in darkest hour, Is no more!!! A man, more brave, and honest never, lived. His soul is with God, but his fame and his family, must command the care of His Country!" In 1840 the short-lived Republic of Texas acknowledged Smith by placing his portrait on its five-dollar bill. In 1931 the state legislature sponsored a monument that was built at his grave in Richmond.

"Erastus Smith." Gale Biography in Context. Detroit: Gale, 2010. Biography in Context. Web. 26 Aug. 2014.

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