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English 1301 - Irvin, Lennie (online class)

Students will search for and evaluate sources for their essays on The Case Against Sugar.

Authority is Constructed and Contextual

When choosing a document to support our writing, we must bring a certain amount of skepticism and always be questioning the value of our sources.  Not all sources are created equal and not all sources are worthy to be included in our work.

So how do we know what documents are worthy and valuable and which ones might be questionable in support of our arguments?

We start by:

  • reading like a detective looking for clues to an unsolved crime
  • questioning like a reporter conducting an interview  
  • looking for bias - be suspicious! Bias conveys partiality, favoritism, bigotry, preferences, preconception, and unfairness
  • considering the tone, style, level of information and assumptions made by the author about the reader

Purpose:  Students will understand that authority is constructed and contextual.

Student Learning Activity: Evaluate a variety of sources for the ethical and logical uses of evidence.

Skills:  The purpose of this activity is to help you practice the following skills essential to your success in school and beyond. 

In this activity you will:

S. 1.   Define types of authority such as subject expertise, social position, or special experience; 

S. 2.   Use research tools to determine the credibility of the author

S. 3.   Recognize that information may be packaged formally or informally and may include sources of all media types.

Knowledge:  This activity will also help you become familiar with the following important content knowledge:

K.1  Motivation to find authoritative sources, recognizing that authority may be conferred or manifested in unexpected ways;

K.2.  Develop awareness of the importance of assessing content with a skeptical stance.

Evaluating Sources Activity

Remember:  Evaluation is a process.  No single question is enough to determine a source's usefulness.  You need to take them all into consideration.

Student Learning Activity: Evaluate a variety of sources for the ethical and logical uses of evidence.

Directions for activity:  

  1. Below you will find multiple source documents or what we will call 'artifacts'.  
  2. Print the 5Ws Table (also found below).   
  3. You will open one source at a time and evaluate each using the 'Five W's' Method, write notes about each artifact on your worksheet (you will need these answers for the quiz).  
  4. You may need to use the computer to check links and to research an author's credentials.
  5. After evaluating each artifact decide whether you would feel confident in using the source for an academic research paper? Explain why or why not?
  6. Open the Quiz tab on the left side of the page and provide your answers for each individual source.  

Wrap Up:  Based on today's activity, individually, write a paragraph explaining to another student some of the elements to consider when evaluating a source for their research needs.

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Five Ws Evaluation Method

WHO:  Who is the author?                    

  • Identify any credentials the author has that make him/her an authority?
  • If an individual author is not named who is the editor or sponsor?
  • If the source is a web site, is there a link to a "home page" to see who is sponsoring the page?
  • Can you detect any conflict of interest or potential bias in this author?

WHAT:  What type of document is it?           

  • Is it a primary or secondary document?
  • Is it an:
    • Opinion, news article, review, report, research study, popular article, scholarly article, blog post, peer-reviewed article, statistical analysis, corporate document, government document

WHEN:  When was the information published and/or updated?  

  • What is the date of publication?
  • When did the event or research being discussed in the document occur?
  • Is your topic time-sensitive so that you can only use the most updated information or is your topic more historically oriented?

WHERE:  Where was the information published? 

  • Is it published in a scholarly journal, popular magazine, encyclopedia, book, website.
  • Is the publisher a known and respected source in the discipline?
  • If the source is a web site, you can check the domain name for clues (.edu, .org, .com, .mil, .net) to determine what type of page this might be.
    • Is there an "about" or "what is" link from either the information page or the "home page" that outlines the purpose of the pages? Are they trying to sell something?

WHY: Why was the document created?                    

  • Who is the intended audience?
    • General audience
    • Specific audience
    • Educated audience
  • What is the author's purpose toward this intended audience--to inform, to persuade, to entertain, to share a point of view?  What is the author’s desired effect upon this audience?
  • Does this purpose seem honest and trustworthy?
  • Was the author paid for his opinion by a third-party that may be considered biased?

HOW: How was it written? How was it produced?

  • How did the author gather data to prepare the artifact? Did the author:
    • gather data or information from outside sources;
    • incorporate in-text citations and a list of references; 
    • present supporting pieces of data, sources, citations, quotes, personal experience, a reliable methodology.
    • If there's not an actual "works cited," are there any internal references to other sources?
      • If yes, what kind of sources are they? Do these sources supplement the information given?
      • If links are provided, do the links work?

Rhetorical Triangle Test


Is my document scholarly?

Three points to test your source:

  1. Scholarly author – experts, researchers, or authorities
  2. Scholarly audience – intended for an audience of researchers, academics, or professionals
  3. Scholarly purpose – to inform, educate, or share research findings

Scholarly v. Popular Articles

How can I tell the difference?
Length Longer articles, providing
in-depth analysis of topics
Shorter articles, providing
broader overviews of topics
Authorship Author usually an expert or specialist in the field, name and credentials always provided Author usually a staff writer or a journalist, name and credentials may be provided
Language/Audience Written in the jargon of the field for scholarly readers (professors, researchers or students) Written in non-technical language
for anyone to understand
Format/Structure Articles usually more structured,
may include these sections: abstract, literature review, methodology, results, conclusion, bibliography
Articles do not necessarily follow a specific format or structure
Special Features Illustrations that support the text, such as tables of statistics, graphs, maps, or photographs Illustrations with glossy or color photographs, usually for advertising purposes
Editors Articles usually reviewed and critically evaluated by a board of experts in the field
Articles are not evaluated by experts in the field, but by editors on staff
Credits A bibliography (works cited) and/or footnotes are always provided to document research thoroughly A bibliography (works cited) is usually not provided, although names of reports or references may be mentioned in the text
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